The Bugwood Network

Forest Pests of North America IPM Photo CD Series

G. K. Douce, D. J. Moorhead, B. T. Watson and C. T. Bargeron

The University of Georgia, Cooperative Extension Service, P. O. Box 748, Tifton, GA, 31793 USA.

Identification of forest insects and diseases, and recognition of their damage are important prerequisites for proper implementation of Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Although pictures are valuable additions to training and educational materials, appropriate and correctly identified pictures are often not available to educators as they develop IPM materials. Access to quality photographs of many of these organisms contained in individual or organizational slide collections would be a valuable teaching resource.

Emerging electronic information technologies offer opportunities to develop, implement and effectively deliver forest IPM information to diverse audiences. However, in addition to the developer having access to needed images, these images must be in usable digital format for use in information technology-delivered materials. This project expands and compliments the scope of images delivered in digital format that are contained in the 1995 Forest Insects and Their Damage: Photo CD Vols. I and II (Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin 383. G. K. Douce, B. T. Watson, D. J. Moorhead and G. J. Lenhard. See: (

Forest Pests of North America Integrated Pest Management Photo CD Series contains three hundred (300) images in Kodak Digital Sciences Photo CD Image Pac format (PCD) that can be used to support and assist the implementation of forest IPM in the North America. The high-resolution, full-color Photo CD Image Pac format captures all of the image data contained on 35mm film. Please visit the Kodak web site for more information about Photo CD technology. A one-user license copy of the Kodak Access 3.1 software for viewing and manipulation of Photo CD images is on CD Vol. 1. The 300 images in this set are divided equally between images related to forest pathology and forest entomology, and are North American in scope. The photographs were taken by many different photographers and were obtained from several image collections as part of a larger project being undertaken by the authors. We attempted to locate and include images of the more important US forest pathogens and insects, but acknowledge that omissions and substitutions are present since, in some cases, we were unable to obtain suitable images for some important or common organisms.

We are indebted to the photographers who allowed use of their images, and to the individuals who provided us with access to agency and organization slide collections. The names and affiliations of the photographers and/or their organizations, image identification and descriptions, and a miniaturized representation of each image can be found in this reference booklet. All references, identification and photographic credits are based upon data collected from the original image or subsequently from the photographers or their organizational representatives. Each image carries a permanent University of Georgia identification number. The authors have tried to insure the accuracy and correctness of the information presented. Apologies are offered in advance should any of the images or information be incorrect or misleading.

These images are copyrighted by The University of Georgia and the individual photographers or organizations. They may be copied and used, in whole or in part, for any non-profit, educational purpose provided that all reproductions bear an appropriate credit and copyright notice. Any commercial or other use of the images requires the written permission of The University of Georgia and the individual photographer or organization. Appropriate reference and credits should be given when using any of the images.

Scientific and common names used are based upon one of the following references.

    For insects: Drooz. 1985. Insects in Eastern Forests; Furniss & Carolin. 1977. Western Forest Insects; Stoetzel. 1989. Common Names of Insects and Related Organisms.

    For Pathogens: Tainter & Baker. 1996. Principles of Forest Pathology; Barnard & Dixon. 1983. Insects and Diseases; Farr et al. 1989. Fungi on plants and plant products in the United States; Hepting. 1971. Diseases of trees in the South; Sinclair et al. 1987. Diseases of trees and shrubs; Riffle & Peterson. 1986. Diseases of trees in the Great Plains.

Categorization, headings and order of images used on these volumes are based upon those set forth in the USDA Forest Service, Forest Pest Management Methods Application Group, Plot Trend-Impact Plot System (PTIPS) Database Applications Users Guide and Reference Manual (Report MAG-94-3. October 1994. 122p.).

Visit The Entomology and Forest Resources Digital Information Work Group "Bugwood" web site for information on other Work Group educational materials and for references, corrections, additions and updates to existing and new materials.


Partial funding for this project and publication was provided by Cooperative Project 94-EPMP-1-0046 IPM in Forest Management: Development of Multimedia-based Educational Materials from the USDA Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service to The University of Georgia.

Sincere appreciation is extended to:

  • The excellent photographers, many of which are current or former employees of the United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, who have shared their efforts with us for use in this educational set.
  • Dr. F. H. Tainter and Ms. Heather Irwin, School of Forest Resources, Clemson University, Clemson, SC USA for reviewing the identification of many of the images and for verification of the common and scientific names associated with many of the forest pathogen images used in this set.
  • Dr. R. A. Goyer, and Mr. Hanxin Wei, Department of Entomology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA USA for reviewing the identification of many of the images and for verification of the common and scientific names associated with many of the forest insect images used in this set.
  • Mr. H. Davis, Imagers, Atlanta GA USA for his assistance in digital aspects of this project.
  • Ms. D. Griesmyer and S. Seela, The University of Georgia, Cooperative Extension Service for many services rendered.

Printing of materials by: Golden Rule Printing, Huntsville, AL, USA.

CD ROM duplication and packaging by Denon Industries, Madison, GA, USA.

Lithography by: Southeastern Lithographers, Athens, GA, USA.

Note: Commercial companies are mentioned in this publication solely for the purpose of providing information. Mention of a company does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of its products by The University of Georgia or an endorsement over products of other companies not mentioned.

Copyright 1999 The University of Georgia

Each image on this collection originated as a 35mm color slide or negative and was scanned and stored as a Kodak PhotoCD Image Pac file. The images were selected from our archive, converted to a high-resolution TIFF file for digital editing and labeling using Adobe Photoshop 4.0. The edited, labeled TIFF files were then converted back to PhotoCD Image Pac (PCD) files and placed on the master CD platter used for duplication.

KODAK DIGITAL SCIENCE PhotoCD system is a powerful computer industry standard tool for viewing, storing and working with images. The Photo CD system can be read by practically any computer equipped with a CDROM drive. There are numerous applications that currently support the PCD format such as Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Pagemaker, Microsoft PowerPoint and Microsoft Word. Information about the PhotoCD format and supported software is currently available at:

Kodak Access Software 3.1 is provided on VOLUME 1 under license agreement with Kodak at no additional cost to the user. The Kodak Access software can be installed by the user on Windows-based computers. Although Access is not a full-fledged photo-editing system, it allows viewing, manipulation and export of PhotoCD (PCD) files without purchasing additional software.

Visit the Kodak web site for more PhotoCD information.

University of GeorgiaThe Bugwood Network Forestry Images The Bugwood Network and Forestry Images Image Archive and Database Systems
The University of Georgia - Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources and
College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences - Dept. of Entomology
Last updated on Wednesday, April 02, 2003 at 11:31 AM
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