The Bugwood Network

Leaf Feeders

Miscellaneous Pests

Fruit tree leaf roller
Orange striped oak worm

Red humped caterpillar

Oblique banded leaf roller

Spiny elm caterpillar


Tent Catapillars

Eastern tent caterpillar
solid stripe down back
Eastern tent caterpillar
defoliation and egg mass

Eastern tent caterpillar tent on tree


Control

The pests shown to this point are rarely controlled - if they are it is generally only in the urban / suburban setting and then only when it involves a high value tree or trees.


Forest tent caterpillar keyhole
pattern down back
Forest tent caterpillars

Aerial view of forest
tent caterpillar damage

Forest tent caterpillar
caused defoliation

Looking up into forest tent
caterpillar damaged crowns


Control

In some cases control of forest tent caterpillar is done to protect a forested area from repeated defoliation by this pest. Control is generally by insecticidal spray or by application of a biological control agent (B.t.)



Forest tent caterpillar killed
by Bacillus thuringiensis


Gypsy Moth

Male gypsy moth

Gypsy moth caterpillar
Female gypsy moths


Gypsy moth larvae
at “tree band”


Control

Significant control efforts being made. Pesticidal treatments, biological treatments, and pheromone disruption treatments are available. More later when we talk about environmental impact statements.


Sawflies

Sawfly eggs in pine needle
Adult sawfly on pine needle

Red-headed pine sawfly larvae

Sawfly damage to trees


Control

Seldom controlled in the field - but chemical treatments are available should high value loss be a probable result of an infestation.


Texas Leaf Cutting Ant

Texas leaf-cutting ant
Texas leaf-cutting
ant (Town ant) town

Pine seedling 1/2 hour
after Texas leaf-cutting
ant attack

Entry mounds to town ant towns


Control

Methyl bromide fumigation of the town is the only current recommendation. This is a difficult and dangerous process. [Both the logistics of getting to the middle of the town which can collapse due to the operator’s weight - and the dangerous nature of the chemical involved].


Gall Causing Insects

Cottonwood petiole gall caused by aphids
Maple bladder gall - mite caused

Hackberry nipple gall - psyllid caused


Control

By the time the galls appear the damage to the existing leaves (or stems) has been done. Manual controls are the only recommended controls here - in urban / suburban settings rake and burn fallen leaves.


Sucking Insects

Balsam Woolly Adelgid on Fraiser Fir
Balsam Woolly Adelgid on Fraiser Fir


Control



Hemlock Woolly Adelgid
on Eastern Hemlock
Hemlock Woolly Adelgid
on Eastern Hemlock


Control


Borers

Nantucket pine tip moth -
newly emerged adult
Tip moth caused terminal crook

Stand showing tip moth damage

Tip moth larva in terminal leader


Control

Chemical control is sometimes used for tip moth control - results are variable as it is difficult, however, to deliver a chemical into the xylem where the larvae feed - systemic insecticides have the best effect with this pest.


Twig girdler damage
Breakage of cottonwood
stem at girdler damage
Cotonwood root borer


Root borer larvae in root

Cottonwood root borer
heading for the root

Pine sawyer larva


Control

Girdlers and root borers are seldom controlled.


Cambium Feeders

Southern pine beetle adult


Aerial photo of a small SPB
spot expanding right to left

Aerial view of a large SPB spot

SPB adult compared to a grain of rice

Early attack - pheromones in
low concentration pheromone
acts as an attractant

SPB aggregate in response to pheromones

Later attack - pheromones in high concentration around heavily
attacked trees - repellant action

Pitch tube formed at point of entry of adult

SPB pitch tubes compared to popcorn

Cambium “engraved” by SPB

SPB egg

SPB spot growth

SPB control options

Salvage

Cut-and-leave study plot

Operational cut-and-leave plot

Chemical control

Chemical control - Insecticide
treatment of infested logs

Old SPB spot

Pales Weevil

Pales weevils on pine seedling


Weevil damage in young plantation

Weevil larva in a chip cocoon

Chip cocoons on wood (under bark)


Control

The best and most effective control here is to avoid planting sites harvested after the previous mid-summer. You do have chemical options available but they are not cost effective compared to the silvicultural option



Silvicultural control causes the
birth of larvae to be poorly
synchronized with the availability
of fresh young seedlings.



Fiery hunter - a ground beetle

Lace Wing larva

Assassin bug

Parasitic wasp (a Chalcoid)

Parasitic wasp (a Chalcoid)

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University of GeorgiaThe Bugwood Network Forestry Images The Bugwood Network and Forestry Images Image Archive and Database Systems
The University of Georgia - Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources and
College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences - Dept. of Entomology
Last updated on Tuesday, February 25, 2003 at 12:15 PM
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