The Bugwood Network

Georgia 4-H Forestry Field Day Manual

Lonnie E. Varnedoe, Public Service Assistant, The University of Georgia
Kim D. Coder, Professor of Forestry, The University of Georgia
David J. Moorhead, Professor of Forestry, The University of Georgia

The University of Georgia, Extension Forest Resources, Bulletin FOR96-029, 1996, 52 pp.

Contest Events:
5. Forest Evaluation Contest

A Team Event for Seniors. (State Level Only)

Introduction

"Every acre of land devoted to its best use" - this is an idea that land owners have had about agricultural land for many years. Level and slightly rolling land for row crops and grain, rolling and better upland slopes for pasture and meadow. The general ideas about forest land is that forests will grow well on all lands not suited for other crops. This is not correct. There are excellent, good, fair, and poor sites for timber production just as there are different kinds of farm crop land. There are forest lands that will economically support cultural practices and permanent physical improvements and other stands in the same area might barely pay land taxes. There are acres that can be harvested every 10 years and there are other areas that may never produce commercial timber.

Forest Evaluation is based on the premise that trees will be harvested, now or in the future, to maximize the goal(s) of a specified landowner.

This contest has been developed to provide contestants an opportunity to learn first hand of the characteristics affecting the growth of the forest crop. It is divided into four parts.

I. Site Evaluation, II. Stand Evaluation, III. Recommended Practices, and IV. Inventory. In order to successfully compete in this contest, it is necessary for the participant to carefully study the material outlined on the following pages. Each of these parts is closely related to one another so it is very important to gain an understanding of this relationship.

Silviculture

Much has been written about trees after they are grown and stands established - of their requirements and the factors that effect these requirements. The study of these same factors and requirements is a branch of forestry which deals with the establishment, development, care, and reproduction of stands of timber. A successful tree grower must know how to adjust or compensate for these factors effectively, as well as to avoid making serious mistakes in his/her program.

Site

The site is the habitat or environment in which plant or a plant community lives. There are a number of factors that will determine whether a plant may exist and reach maturity in a sound, healthy and sturdy state. Some of the factors that determine the desirability of a site are aspect, slope position, percent of slope, and others of a more technical nature.

Aspect

Aspect is a compass reading facing down a slope; the direction water would run gives the compass direction. Usually a site located on a north-eastern exposure is regarded as favorable and one on the opposite, or south-western as rather unfavorable. Actually, taken from a compass reading, an area from North 45 degrees West to South 45 degrees East is considered a good growing site. An illustration of the desirable northern exposure and the less desirable southern exposure is indicated in Figure 3.

Picture
Figure 3. – Aspect - Desirable Exposure Sites

A combination of factors and conditions of a technical nature are involved in the exposure of a site, but for the purposes of this guide, moisture and how it is used or lost shall be the determining factor in exposure and in aspect.

Exposure is just what the term implies; it means that the surface of the land is open or exposed to the forces of the sun, wind and rain. The exposed site looses more moisture by transpiration and evaporation because of the forces of the sun and wind. A northern exposure is more protected, there is less moisture lost and the trees will grow more rapidly and desirably.

Slope Position

Slope position is determined only for soils that are not flat. The positions are classified as upper 1/3, middle 1/3 and lower 1/3. Ridge tops or level plateaus and bottom land soils are classified separately in land capability.

Slope Percent

Slope percent is determined by the feet of rise or fall in each 100 horizontal feet of land and is broken down into categories according to steepness which ranges from 0-20%, 20-40%, and 40% plus. One instrument that can be used to measure slope percent is called an Abney Level. Figure 4 below illustrates a 20% slope.

Picture
The simple formula used to calculate the percent (%) of slope above is shown below.
AC / BC x 100 = % slope
5 / 25 x 100 = 20% slope

Forest Land Capability Classes

Forest land is divided into four categories: excellent, good, fair and poor. Much of the information given through site requirements (aspect, slope, position, slope percent) helps to determine the classification.

  • Class I or Excellent is very good from all points of view. This is practically level forest land, it is fertile and holds water well. There is little erosion, it is well drained, but not droughty. This land will produce a good stand of timber.

  • Class II or Good is usually gently sloping. In some cases there are drainage problems which may affect tree growth.

  • Class III or Fair usually has a greater slope percent and could be fairly steep. This slope, together with associated factors of shallow soil and low fertility gives this land its classification of Fair.

  • Class IV or Poor may be very steep with shallow soil. The site may be rocky with low soil fertility. It can either be extremely wet or dry. Good examples are ridge tops and swamps.

Stocking

Stocking and stand density are two terms which can be defined the same and used interchangeably. Both refer to the proportion of a forested area that is covered by trees. In classifying a stand it is indicated as Well-stocked, Over-stocked, or Under-stocked.

Well-Stocked A well-stocked forest has trees that are distributed as uniformly as possible to ideal conditions or such that each stem has just enough room to grow and do well.

Over-Stocked Over-stocked stands have too many trees that crowd each other competing for available soil nutrients, water, and sunlight.

Under-Stocked An under-stocked stand has too few trees on it to optimally produce the desired results. In forest stands, the trees on under stocked sites tend to be large-crowned and low grade for most wood products.

Stocking and Basal Area

Basal area can be quickly determined using optical instruments. This eliminates the establishment of plots and individual tree measurements. A wedge prism is commonly used to determine basal area. Light is distorted as it passes through the prism. This distortion causes objects that are viewed through the prism to be displaced toward the thin edge of the prism. The amount of displacement is related by a mathematical factor to basal area. A 10 factor prism is most common as it allows data collected from each sample point to be converted to an acre basis by multiplying by 10. Prisms are relatively inexpensive and can be obtained through forestry supply catalogs.

Prism Sampling Procedure

  1. Select sampling points within the timber stand. The number of sampling points depends on tract size, the variation in stocking and the degree of accuracy desired. The more samples points taken, the greater the accuracy.
  2. Hold the prism over the sample point at a comfortable distance from your eye, keeping the top edge of the prism horizontal (on level ground and slopes to 10 percent), and the face of the prism at right angles to your line of sight.
  3. Closing one eye, sight through the prim to each tree at breast height. Count the number of tally trees as you rotate the prism, not your eye, over the sample point.
  4. Multiply the number of trees tallied at the sample point by the basal area factor of the prism (10 for a 10 factor prism) to determine basal area in square feet per acre. Do this for each sample point and then average all sample points to get a basal area estimate for the tract.
Picture
Figure 5. – How to determine which tree is in or out using a prism.

Angle Gauges, Another Method of Determining Basal Area

Angle gauges can be used to determine basal area with a system similar to prism sampling. The angle gauge can be easily made at home. All that is needed is a narrow strip of wood 33 inches long and a one-inch wide bracket or metal strip bent to a right angle that can be attached to the end of the wooden stick. Basal area is determined by establishing sampling points in the timber stand. By holding the end of the angle gauge to your cheek, sight down the stick past the one inch wide target to each tree as you rotate around the sample point using your eye as the pivot point. Tally trees for basal area determination following the diagram below. Multiply the number of trees tallied in the plot by ten to determine basal area in square feet per acre. Average all plots sampled to estimate average basal area for the tract.

Basal Area and Its Relation to Site

Once basal area has been determined, stocking can be estimated. If the stand is overstocked, tree growth will be reduced. If understocked, the site is not being used to its fullest potential. On average pine sites stocking should be about 80 square feet of basal area per acre. More fertile sites could support higher basal areas, while on less productive sites, basal area would be reduced. Site index, as determined on a 50 year basis, can be used to determine stocking by relating basal area to the site index value. Land with a site index of 85 (50 years) should have a stocking rate of 85 square feet of basal area per acre. Stocking increases as timber grows and decreases when timber is harvested or dies. The stocking level can be manipulated by periodic thinnings. Allow timber in the stand to grow until an excess of 10 to 15 square feet of basal area per acre accumulates, then reduce stocking by thinning to about 10 square feet below the recommended stocking level. For example, the site index (50 year basis) for loblolly pine growing on a Carnegie sandy loam is 85 feet. Therefore the optimum stocking would be 85 square feet of basal area. When basal area increases to 95 to 100 square feet, thin the stand down to about 75 square feet of basal area. Stocking levels may be modifed to produce specific products or to satisfy landowners' desires.

Picture

Crown Class

Trees can be Dominant (tallest), Codominant (shares top of forest with another species), or Suppressed (lower trees, gets light filtered through all other trees).

Commercial Forest Type Descriptions

Pine Type

Across the state, pine represents our most important commercial forest resource. Pine stands are managed to produce a variety of forest products including, pulp, poles, saw timber, naval stores, and pine straw. From the Piedmont north, loblolly pine and shortleaf pine are the most common species. In the Coastal Plain, slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are found. In each region other less common pine species can occur.

Pines are relatively intolerant to shade and competition so regeneration success requires relatively clear open sites, thus new pine stands are generally regenerated as even-aged, that is all of the new regeneration is established within a short time. Planted stands will have seedlings established in a single year, while stands regenerated naturally from seed will have seedlings developing over 2 to 5 years.

Regeneration

Several harvest methods are well-suited for pine regeneration:

Clearcutting is the most common method of harvest and regeneration. After the mature trees are harvested, the site is prepared to plant using mechanical and/or herbicide treatments to remove or kill competing vegetation that would hinder the establishment, survival and growth of the pine seedlings. Generally, 500 to 700 seedling per acre are planted.

Seed tree & Shelterwood methods use mature trees as the seed source for the new stand. The seed tree method leaves 6 to 10 trees per acre and the shelterwood 20 to 40 trees per acre (12 to 14 inch DBH trees preferred) to provide seeds to regenerate the stand. Understory woody and herbaceous vegetation must be controlled to insure prompt germination and growth of the seedlings. A series of prescribed burns at 2 year intervals before the seed tree or shelterwood cut will control most vegetation. Hardwoods greater than 3 to 5 inches DBH are generally too large to control with fire and may need a herbicide treatment. The decision to use seed tree verses shelterwood depends on species, market conditions, aesthetics and landowner preference. 20 to 40 trees per acre are needed to get good seed distribution over the site. Often the shelterwood methods involves a preparatory cut 5 to 7 years before the shelterwood is made. This is done to favor crown development of the potential seed producing trees. Since the shelterwood method leaves more trees per acre than the seed tree method, it visually has less impact to the site, also more wood is left for the final harvest which may attract more buyers than a seed tree harvest.

For both methods, when 1,000 one-year old seedlings per acre have been established, the overstory seed trees should be removed. If stocking is above 6,000 seedling per acre after seed tree removal, a precommercial thinning by mowing or chopping can be used leaving one-foot wide rows of seedlings on 8 to 10 foot centers. If densely overstocked stands are not thinned, tree growth rapidly diminishes.

Management

Intermediate treatments include commercial thinnings in planted and naturally regenerated pine stands are common when average tree size reaches 5 inches DBH. Initial thinnings remove forked, crooked, and diseased pulpwood size stems leaving the best formed trees in the stand to grow into more valuable poles and sawtimber. Additional thinnings can be made on 5 to 7 year intervals until final harvest.

Fertilizers may be applied at the time of planting, particularly on wet sites deficient in phosphorus. The use of fertilization depends on site quality and understory conditions. Competition control is important otherwise nutrients may be tied up by herbaceous and woody vegetation. Fertilization is also recommended when pine straw is harvested on an annual basis. Nitrogen should be added at every 4 to 5 years to maintain site productivity.

Herbicides are used in pine management for site preparation, herbaceous weed control , and for releasing established pines from woody competition. Prescribed fire is also an effective management tool for site preparation and reduction of competing vegetation. Carefully applied prescribed fires can be used to reduce competition, enhance appearance and access, improve habitat for select wildlife, reduce hazardous fuel buildup, and various other uses. Most stands receive their first prescribe burn when the trees are 6 years or older. Burning at 2 to 4 year intervals can effectively reduce competition from woody vegetation.

Oak-Pine Type

This type is found from the Mountains into the Coastal Plain, upland oaks (see oak-hickory type) makeup 50 to 75 percent of the stand, with pine constituting 25 to 50 percent of the stocking. This type is one of the transitional stages from pine dominated forests to climax forests of oak and other hardwoods. As pine is harvested or dies from lighting strikes, wind throw, insects and disease, the more tolerant hardwoods claim their place at the expense of pie regeneration. As the pine component continues to decline, the type shifts to oak-hickory.

Regeneration

Clearcutting followed by site preparation for conversion to pine is commonly practiced (see pine type). Generally hardwood densities preclude the use of seed tree and shelterwood methods for pine regeneration unless the hardwoods are controlled by prescribed fire or herbicides.

Group selection harvests creating small openings up to ½ acre in size will result in hardwood regeneration with some scattered pine. Openings can be planted with pine seedlings followed by herbicide release treatments to increase the valuable pine component.

Management

Several management tools can be used to maintain this type. Commercial thinnings and release treatments aimed to promote growth of pine and the more desirable hardwoods in conjunction with group selection regeneration cuts can rehabilitate and maintain the type. These mixed stands are aesthetically pleasing, present low risk to many insect and disease problems, and have commercial value since both pine and hardwood stumpage is in demand across the state. Prescribed fire is not normally recommended, but may be useful in some site preparation activities. Overall, the management of this type requires good inventory data and careful marking and harvesting practices. Past treatments have generally lead to the decline of the type because of exclusive removal of only the most valuable individual trees without providing for regeneration and improvement of the residual stand.

Oak-Hickory Type

This type can contain a variety of oak and other associated species. Common are southern red, white, scarlet, northern red, black, and post oaks. Shagbark, pignut, and mockernut hickories, blackgum, sweetgum, yellow-poplar, beech and other assorted species (including scattered pines) are common in this type. This type represents a transition from the oak-pine type as the pine component declines (pine stocking is less than 25 percent, see Oak-Pine Type).

While this type contains valuable commercial species, and has value for wildlife and aesthetics, many stands may contain poor quality stems with little commercial value because of past harvesting and utilization practices in which only the highest quality stems were harvested.

Regeneration

Adequate regeneration may be lacking in the understory. Generally 300 well-established seedlings are needed per acre as advanced regeneration.

Clearcuts which remove not only commercial stems, but sever all stems larger than one-inch in diameter, are efficient and effective in regenerating this type from stump and root sprouts. Site preparation with chemical and mechanical means is not recommended as it will reduce the number and quality of reproduction sprouts. Prescribed burning is not normally recommended, but research indicates it may play an important role in oak regeneration.

Group & single tree selection harvest methods in which trees are cut in groups or singly can be used to create openings to favor regeneration from seeds and sprouts. Group selection openings average 1/4 to ½ acre, while single tree openings are 1/10 to 1/4 acre.

Management

Developing regeneration can be released using single stem herbicide treatments, or mechanical cleanings or thinnings. Interplanting seedlings into openings created by single tree selection harvests are not recommended. Generally, selection harvest openings are not large enough to provide adequate sunlight for planted seedling development. Stands can be upgraded by thinning, release, and improvement cuttings to remove poor quality stems, release regeneration, and to favor crop trees.

Upland sites are subject to erosion and care must be taken during road building and harvest operations to protect streams, site quality and other natural resources.

Best hardwood growth occurs on sites which retain deep topsoil, high organic matter, and adequate fertility. The most productive sites occur on lower slopes, toe slopes, and within drainage branches and draws. Pine outproduces hardwoods on ridge tops, upper slopes and on more highly eroded sites and is generally favored over hardwoods for commercial production on these sites.

Cove Hardwood Type

In the southern Appalachian mountains, coves and moist slopes with deep well-drained soils are some of the most productive hardwood sites in the state. Yellow-poplar, basswood, northern red oak, white oak, black oak, white ash, sugar maple, black cherry, and hickories are common associated species.

Regeneration

Various cutting methods are used to regenerate these stands all depend on the presence of adequate seed sources, seedlings present before harvest as advanced regeneration and the sprouting potential of cut stumps. In some cases herbicides are used to release desirable reproduction before or just after harvest:

Clearcutting is effective particularly with yellow-poplar their seeds from previous years crops remains viable in the liter for 5 to 7 years and will readily germinate when exposed to light and mixed in the mineral soil following logging. Make cuts at least one acre in size to allow maximum light to the forest floor. Other commercial species respond well to clearcutting as well, provided adequate advanced regeneration is present. Generally 300 established seedlings per acre are sufficient for most species.

Group selection, where openings of 1/4 to ½ acre in size are created may be more aesthetically pleasing particularly on highly visible scenic slopes. Regeneration success depends on the presence of advanced reproduction (see clearcutting), and from sprouts from cut stumps and seed either in-place or from adjacent trees.

Shelterwood, leaves seed producing trees as an overstory providing timber and non-timber benefits. Yellow-poplar, ash, and oak can be reproduced with this method. After regeneration is secured, remove the overstory to release the developing seedlings. A variation of this method is to retain the overstory for long periods and thinning the overstory trees and making improvement and release cuts in the younger understory. Over time, a distinct two-age stand can develop. This variation insures that tree cover is always maintained on the site which may be of importance in recreational and scenic areas.

Management

Thinnings in pulpwood size stands (stand age 15 to 25 years, and stems 5 inches DBH and over) can be valuable. Potential mortality is salvaged, and growth of desirable residual stems is enhanced. Favor well-formed trees with full crowns to maximize growth response. Protect these stands from wildfire.

Bottomland Hardwood Type

This is a diverse type comprised of numerous species throughout the state. In the Piedmont along wider streams and rivers, terraces adjacent to the water courses support highly productive hardwood stands. As you move south in the state into the Coastal Plain, broad stream bottoms, wet flats, sloughs, and marshes (swamps) support nearly pure stands of hardwoods. Common species are swamp chestnut oak and cherrybark oak on rich deep soils along major river and stream terraces. On somewhat more poorly drained sites closer to waters edge, sweetgum and willow oak are common along with various elm, ash, and other hardwoods. On the very poorly drained wet flats and sloughs, overcup oak, water hickory along with water and willow oak, black and water tupelo, red maple and cypress are common. In permanent ponds, cypress, water tupelo are often the only trees found.

Fully stocked stands can carry in excess of 120 square feet of basal area. This stocking should be in desirable commercial species. Past cutting practices have often left stands with few high quality stems. If the stand does not contain at least 20, 40, and 60 feet of basal area at ages 20, 30, and 40 years respectively, the stand is a candidate for regeneration.

Regeneration

Several harvest-regeneration systems may be used to regenerate or rehabilitate bottomland hardwood stands:

Clearcutting, being sure to fell all residual stems one inch in diameter and larger is an efficient method to harvest and regenerate stands. Clearcut stands regenerate from sprouts, seeds and advanced regeneration. Generally, more than 450 seedlings of desired species should be present before cutting. However, sprouts from the stumps and roots of harvested trees and saplings usually are the most important source of regeneration. Further site preparation is not required, and practices such as root raking and piling reduce the sprouting potential.

Group Selection, here small groups of trees are clearcut to create opening for regeneration to develop. Openings may range from 1/4 to several acres in size. Advanced reproduction, sprouts and seeds are all important regeneration sources.

Shelterwood, an overstory of desirable seed producing trees are retained after harvest to produce sed and provide shelter to developing seedlings and sprouts. Shade from the overstory trees will hamper growth of weeds and other undesirable vegetation until sufficient regeneration is secured (generally 750 to 1000 stems per acre). Remove the overstory within 2 to 4 years to release developing regeneration.

Management

In all cases, it will take 8 to 12 years for the desirable species in the stand to begin to express dominance over the pioneer species that will quickly occupy the site. Careful inventories in early years of stand development will reveal the presence of desirable regeneration along with a vast array of short-lived species that at first impression seem to completely dominate. However, as these species begin to slow their growth, oak, ash, gum and other longer-lived species "take over" the site. Intermediate treatments are best delayed until this occurs. Then careful thinnings can be done to favor development of the best quality and most valuable stems in the stand.

Fire

Wildfire is a disastrous enemy of the forest. It destroys the duff or litter on the forest floor. In this duff are seeds awaiting germination, and these, too, are destroyed. The timber will have scars or scalds on it if it survives a wildfire. A controlled fire (prescribed burn) is a forest management tool used to manipulate vegetation and prevent fuel accumulation.

Origin of the Stand

A stand of trees may have originated from any of three sources; first - a seed, second - a sprout or coppice, and third - planted. A forest that is derived from seed or seedling may be more healthy due to the lack of interference from parent trees. In a sprout or coppice forest the opposite conditions exist because some diseases such as Dutch Elm Disease and Chestnut Blight are present in the area to attack new trees.

Size Distribution

In determining the size distribution of a stand all the sizes of stems present are considered. In a good stand, a ratio of saplings, poles, and saw timber should be distributed fairly evenly. Even-aged species may be all of one size or if growing from one size into another, trees may appear in two classes. This is necessary in a sustained yield program. Specific sizes are from 0-1" - reproduction, from 1-3" - saplings, from 3-12" - pole timber, and from 12" plus - saw timber.

Recommended Practices

The recommended practices will apply to forested areas that need improvement. Multiple land-use should be evident as the forest management process begins.

Using information in the guide; the following checklist or score sheet can be used to determine forest improvement practices necessary to be carried out in the forestry project. This is a sequence of analyzing various aspects of the project leading to an intelligent, reasonably accurate evaluation.

Contest Situation

Competing teams will be given a situation for a designated plot of land used in the event. Teams will be responsible for completing all four parts of Forest Evaluation. Devices and conditions to aid participants in making their decisions will include compass, height measuring scale stick, marked plot boundaries and designated trees for inventory.

At the State contest, contestants will be told the depth of the soil. They will be responsible for any additional information required to complete the site evaluation. Contestants will be required to evaluate the crown class of designated trees.

Scoring: This event is equal in point values to the other four events. This event is a team event.

See examples of Forest Evaluation Sheet, Plot Tally Work Sheet, Forest Stand Evaluation, and Practices Recommended.

Forest Evaluation Score Sheet

County Name _______________________________________________________________________
Total Score _________________________________________________________________________
Management Objective ______________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________

I. Site Evaluation: Circle (A.) Depth of Soil, (B.) Slope %, (C.) Aspect, and (D.) Slope Position, as they apply to the contest area.

A. Soil Depth Deep 24"+ Shallow < 24"
B. Slope % Rolling
0-20
Steep
21-39
Very Steep
40+
Rolling
0-20
Steep
21-39
Very Steep
40+
C. Aspect NE SW NE SW NE SW NE SW NE SW NE SW
D. Slope Position
      Bottom I II I II I II I II I III II III
      Lower 1/3 I II I II I III I III II III III IV
      Middle 1/3 I II II III II III II III III IV IV IV
      Upper1/3 II III III III IV IV III IV II IV IV IV
      Top II III III III IV IV III IV II IV IV IV
E. Determine the proper Forest Land Capabilities Class by drawing a line down from the
    Aspect circled and across from the Slope Position circled. The Roman numeral where
    these lines intersect indicates the capability class. Circle the proper class below:
  I. Excellent II. Good III. Fair IV. Poor


Part I Score __________

Plot Tally Worksheet

Plot DBH Tally Card
Relation of Basal Area and
Average DBH to Stocking
Relation of basal Area and Average DBH to Stocking
Tree DBH
1. __________
2. __________
3. __________
4. __________
5. __________
6. __________
7. __________
8. __________
9. __________
10. __________
11. __________
12. __________
13. __________
14. __________  
15. __________  
Average Plot DBH ____________  
Plot Basal Area ______________  

Determine stocking from the plot basal area measurement and average DBH calculated above. Locate Average Tree Diameter at the top of the stocking graph, follow the corresponding line down to the intersection of the plot Basal Area per acre value line. Read the stocking class inside the graph.

II. Forest Stand Evaluation:

  1. Basal Area

  2. Average Plot DBH

  3. Stocking (Check correct answer)
    • Understocked __________     Overstocked __________     Fully stocked __________

  4. Crown Class (Circle for each marked tree in the plot
    • Tree #1          Supressed          Intermediate          Codominant          Dominant

    • Tree #2          Supressed          Intermediate          Codominant          Dominant

    • Tree #3          Supressed          Intermediate          Codominant          Dominant

  5. Commercial Forest Type (Choose the predominant type)
    • Pines __________          Oak-Pine __________          Oak-Hickory __________
      Cove Hardwoods ____________          Bottomland Hardwoods ____________

  6. Adequate Advanced Regeneration Present?
    • Yes __________          No __________

  7. Fire Evidence?
    • Unburned __________          Wildlife __________           Prescribed Burn __________

  8. Origin of Stand?
    • Seedlings __________          Sprouts __________          Mixed __________

  9. Size Distribution? (Maybe more than one class)
    • Reproduction __________          Saplings _____________          
      Pole Timber ___________          Saw Timber __________

  10. Grazing Damage?
    • Severe __________          Slight __________          None __________

Part II Score __________

III. Practices Recommended:

_____1. Leave alone to grow.

_____2. Commercially thin stand, leaving the desirable trees to grow.

_____3. Precommercially thin.

_____4. Fence area from livestock.

_____5. Inventory and mark boundary in preparation for clearcut harvest.

_____6. Inventory and mark timber for selection harvest.

_____7. Use a tree seed or shelterwood reproduction cut.

_____8. Kill wolf trees.

_____9. Remove poorly formed, damaged, and undesirable trees from the stand.

_____10. Sanitation cuttting for pest problems.

_____11. Remove vines causing damage to trees.

_____12. Plant with recommended trees.

_____13. Release pine seedlings/saplings from hardwood.

_____14. Release hardwood advanced regeneration.

_____15. Protect area from wildfire.

_____16. Establish wildlife food plots and cover.

_____17. Develop a smoke management plan and prescribed burning program.

_____18. Develop a written management plan.

_____19. Apply fertilizer.

_____20. Prune lower limbs for access.

_____21. Control understory vegetation with mechanical or chemical treatments.

_____22. Use Forestry Best Management Practices for stream crossings, roads, and buffers during
               harvest operations.

Part III Score ____________

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